The Breath project (Project Number: 2022-1-PL01-KA220-HED-000089283) has been funded by the European Union. Views and opinions expressed are however those of the author(s) only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or the European Education and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA). Neither the European Union nor EACEA can be held responsible for them.

Literature Reviews

A literature review of national academic and governmental publications, with the aim to collect data and analyze the local contexts of the participating countries taking into account: epidemiology, organization of national health service, management, rehabilitation paths, and rehabilitation structures to verify the development of physical activity programs for patients with respiratory impairment and the local unmet needs.


Title Study Field
Urban environment and physical activity and capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Physical activity among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain (2014-2020): Temporal trends, sex differences, and associated factors. Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Patients’ perspective
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in patients admitted with COPD: Associated factors. Epidemiology, Management, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Physical activity behavior in people with asthma and COPD overlap residing in Spain: a cross sectional analysis. Epidemiology, Management, Patients’ perspective
Effects of Adding an Online Exercise Program on Physical Function in Individuals Hospitalized by COVID-19: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Promotion of physical activity after hospitalization for COPD exacerbation: A randomized control trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths
Effect of a Graduated Walking Program on the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. A Randomized Clinical Trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Effectiveness of a community-based exercise training programme to increase physical activity level in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Frailty transitions and associated clinical outcomes in patients with stable COPD: A longitudinal study. Epidemiology, Management, Patients’ perspective
Long-term efficacy and effectiveness of a behavioural and community-based exercise intervention (Urban Training) to increase physical activity in patients with COPD: a randomised controlled trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Effects of concurrent exercise training on muscle dysfunction and systemic oxidative stress in older people with COPD. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Exercise Capacity and Physical Activity in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis after a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Home-Based Programme: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Breathing exercises versus strength exercises through telerehabilitation in coronavirus disease 2019 patients in the acute phase: A randomized controlled trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Effect of a combined exercise program on physical fitness, lung function, and quality of life in patients with controlled asthma and exercise symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Rehabilitation for post-COVID-19 condition through a supervised exercise intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Real-life retrospective observational study to determine the prevalence and economic burden of severe asthma in Spain. Epidemiology, Organization of national health service
Asthma prevalence, lung and cardiovascular function in adolescents born preterm. Epidemiology, Patients’ perspective
Predictors and changes of physical activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Effects of inspiratory muscle training versus high intensity interval training on the recovery capacity after a maximal dynamic apnoea in breath-hold divers. A randomised crossover trial. Management, Rehabilitation structures
Determinants of study completion and response to a 12-month behavioral physical activity intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cohort study. Management, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Issue 1 - “Update on adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution”. Part 1): Outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases: A general update and an Italian perspective Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Gender differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of hospitalization indicators Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
How Italian respiratory physiotherapists have faced and are facing the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Effects of quarantine on Physical Activity prevalence in Italian Adults: a pilot study Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Narrative medicine to improve the management and quality of life of patients with COPD: the first experience applying parallel chart in Italy Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
The Maugeri daily activity profile: a tool to assess physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
A Call for Action on Chronic Respiratory Diseases within Physical Activity Policies, Guidelines and Action Plans: Let’s Move! Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Is physical activity a necessary element during Italian coronavirus disease emergency? Yes or no debate Epidemiology, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Asthma, COPD, Respiratory, and Allergic Health Effects in an Adult Population Living near an Italian Refinery: A Cross-Sectional Study Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Health-Related Quality of Life in Italian Adolescents During Covid-19 Outbreak Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Enlightening chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through patients’ and caregivers’ narratives Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases and associated factors in the adult Italian population Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Kaia Health and Chiesi Group Announce Strategic Partnership to Commercialise Kaia COPD Pulmonary Rehabilitation App in European Markets Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
A controlled respiratory training to improve quality of life and well-being perception in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Clinical course of IPF in Italian patients Open Access during 12 months of observation: results from the FIBRONET observational study Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Health-related quality of life varies in different respiratory disorders: a multi-case control population based study Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional outcomes and quality of life in post- SARS-CoV-2 mild-to-moderate infection patients: a pilot study Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis Epidemiology, Patients’ perspective
Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): Strategy and activities Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Italy: The SIRIO study (Social Impact of Respiratory Integrated Outcomes) Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
A new questionnaire specifically designed for patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Italian Health Status Questionnaire Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Lithuania has a comparatively comprehensive asthma strategy, with severe asthma guidelines and tobacoo control laws Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Health of Population of Lithuania (edition 2020). Prevalence of selected diseases and chronic conditions Epidemiology, Organization of national health service
Vilnius Declaration on chronic respiratory diseases: multisectoral care pathways embedding guided self-management, mHealth and air pollution in chronic respiratory diseases Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Follow-Up Analysis of Pulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, Radiological Changes, and Quality of Life Two Months after Recovery from SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Highlights on health in Lithuania Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Herbal Medicine Uses for Respiratory System Disorders and Possible Trends in New Herbal Medicinal Recipes during COVID-19 in Pasvalys District, Lithuania Epidemiology, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Comorbidities in Lithuanian National Database: A Cluster Analysis Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Lung Cancer Survival in Lithuania: Changes by Histology, Age, and Sex From 2003-2007 to 2008-2012 Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Associations between neighbourhood greenness and asthma in preschool children in Kaunas, Lithuania: a case–control study Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Fatigue of 2-17 years old children with asthma in Lithuania Epidemiology, Patients’ perspective
Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Pediatric Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Single-Center Experience Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
The self-reported quality of life of Lithuanian children with asthma was comparable to Western populations Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Patients’ perspective
Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Comorbidities in Lithuanian National Database: A Cluster Analysis Epidemiology, Management
State of Health in the EU · Lithuania · Country Health Profile 2021 Epidemiology, Organization of national health service
Croatia: Health system review Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
State of Health in the EU · Croatia - Country Health Profile 2021 Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths
Divergent Trends in the Prevalence of Children's Asthma, Rhinitis and Atopic Dermatitis and Environmental Influences in the Urban Setting of Zagreb, Croatia Epidemiology
Attitudes of Croatian pulmonologists concerning obstacles to earlier, more appropriate use of biologics in severe asthma: Survey results Epidemiology
National Programme for Promotion of Physical Activity: the situation in Portugal Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths
A randomized controlled trial of respiratory physiotherapy in lower respiratory tract infections Management, Rehabilitation paths
Community-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programs in Individuals With COPD Management, Rehabilitation paths
Effects of a Home-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in GOLD B Group: A Pilot Study Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease with the same dyspnea severity Rehabilitation paths
Minimal Clinically Important Difference for Quadriceps Muscle Strength in People with COPD following Pulmonary Rehabilitation Rehabilitation paths
Novel Input for Designing Patient-Tailored Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Telemonitoring Physical Activity as a Vital Sign-SMARTREAB Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
A Pilot Study on a Nurse Rehabilitation Program: Could It Be Applied to COVID-19 Patients? Management, Rehabilitation paths
Telerehabilitation in the Transitional Care of Patients with Sequelae Associated with COVID-19: Perception of Portuguese Nurses Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths
Teleconsultation in respiratory medicine: A position paper of the Portuguese Pulmonology Society Management, Rehabilitation paths
Environmental Awareness for Patients with COPD Undergoing Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Is It of Added Value? Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Patient Experience in Home Respiratory Therapies: Where We Are and Where to Go Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Long-Term Maintenance Strategies after Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Perspectives of People with Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Informal Carers, and Healthcare Professionals Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Triangulated perspectives on outcomes of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD: a qualitative study to inform a core outcome set Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Access, access, access: the Three A's of pulmonary rehabilitation–perspectives of patients, loved ones and healthcare professionals Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
International perspectives on outcome measurement in pulmonary rehabilitation of people with COPD: A qualitative study Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
A qualitative study of patient and carer experiences with home respiratory therapies: Long-term oxygen therapy and home mechanical ventilation Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Patient experience with home respiratory therapies in Portugal : it is time to move forward Management, Rehabilitation paths, Patients’ perspective
Pediatric respiratory rehabilitation project in a home setting: an innovative alternative to no care Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Eligible COPD patients and access to pulmonary rehabilitation in a Portuguese region Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths
COVID-19: A New Challenge for Pulmonary Rehabilitation? Management, Rehabilitation paths
Exercise Training as a Non-Pharmacological Therapy for Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Home-Based Rehabilitation Program and Training Recommendations Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Non-pharmacological Management in Palliative Care for Patients With Advanced COPD Management, Rehabilitation paths
Physical activity in asthma control and its immune modulatory effect in asthmatic preschoolers Rehabilitation paths
Exercise Training in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer During In-Hospital Chemotherapy Treatment: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL Rehabilitation paths
Pulmonary rehabilitation in interstitial lung diseases: A review of the literature Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Coexistence of frailty syndrome and the level of health behaviors in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Organization of national health service, Management
Długo utrzymujące się objawy duszności, kaszlu i zmęczenia po przebyciu COVID-19 – przegląd narracyjny badań epidemiologicznych [Long lasting symptoms of dyspnea, cough and fatigue after COVID-19 - narrative review of epidemiological studies]. In Polish Epidemiology
Treatment of acute respiratory failure in the course of COVID-19. Practical hints from the expert panel of the Assembly of Intensive Care and Rehabilitation of the Polish Respiratory Society. Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths
Guidelines of the Polish Respiratory Society for diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Rehabilitation paths
The position paper of the Polish Society of Allergology on climate changes, natural disasters and allergy and asthma Epidemiology
The Unmet Needs of People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Findings Patients’ perspective
Poland: Health System Summary, 2022 Organization of national health service
Global Initiative for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The 2020 GOLD Science Committee Report on COVID-19 and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management
Nursing Research on Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Respiratory Failure Based on Big Data Management, Rehabilitation paths
Monitoring Physical Activity with a Wearable Sensor in Patients with COPD during In-Hospital Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program: A Pilot Study Rehabilitation paths
Monitoring Physical Activity with a Wearable Sensor in Patients with COPD during In-Hospital Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program: A Pilot Study Rehabilitation paths
Expectations of Patients Recovering from SARS-CoV-2 towards New Forms of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Rehabilitation paths
Post-COVID-19 rehabilitation - a Polish pilot program Rehabilitation paths
Proprietary Model of Qualification for In-Hospital Rehabilitation after COVID-19 Management, Rehabilitation paths
Virtual Reality Rehabilitation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial Rehabilitation paths
Regular exercise improves asthma control in adults: A randomized controlled trial Management, Rehabilitation structures
Association between regular exercise and asthma control among adults: The population-based Northern Finnish Asthma Study Epidemiology, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Daily physical activity and lung function decline in adult-onset asthma: a 12-year follow-up study Management
Breathe and be out of breath ─ Handbook on exercising safely for people with respiratory disease (2nd revised edition 2020) Patients’ perspective
Impulse oscillometry and free-running tests for diagnosing asthma and monitoring lung function in young children, Management
Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Inflammation, and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Middle-Aged Men Management
Controlling chronic respiratory diseases in Finland from 1996 to 2018 Epidemiology, Organization of national health service
Physical activity, severe exacerbations and pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD Management, Patients’ perspective
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A handbook for people with COPD. (2nd revised edition 2021) Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Guide to Asthma Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Physical activity and exercise training for adults in sickness and in health Patients’ perspective
Marked deterioration in the quality of life of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis during the last two years of life Patients’ perspective
Occupation, socioeconomic status and chronic obstructive respiratorydiseases – The EpiLung study in Finland, Estonia and Sweden Epidemiology
Physical activity in asthma control and its immune modulatory effect in asthmatic preschoolers Management, Patients’ perspective
Sauna bathing reduces the risk of respiratory diseases: a longterm prospective cohort study Management
Participation in scheduled asthma follow‑up contacts and adherence to treatment during 12‑year follow‑up in patients with adult‑onset asthma Organization of national health service, Management
Patient evaluations of asthma counselling quality in primary health care — a cross-sectional survey Patients’ perspective
Psychosocial issues need more attention in COPD self-management education Patients’ perspective
The information needs of people with COPD – The holistic approach with special reference to gender and time since diagnosis Patients’ perspective
The status of asthma and COPD care in Finland today as perceived by professionals Organization of national health service, Management
Gender differences in specific trends of COPD mortality in Croatia Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Overview of symptoms of ongoing symptomatic and post-COVID-19 patients who were reffered to pulmonary rehabilitation - first single-centre experience in Croatia Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
A view on experience and communication perspectives in lung cancer patients in Croatia Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Emotions and Food Consumption: Emotional Eating Behavior in a European Population Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Recommendations for COPD management in Central and Eastern Europe Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management
Respiratory nursing training in Croatia Organization of national health service, Management
The effect of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle and mood in Croatian general population: a cross-sectional study Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Study of depression and anxiety in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with mild airflow limitation: current knowledge and proposal for future research - a consensus document from six scientific societies Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Motivation for health behaviour: A predictor of adherence to balanced and healthy food across different coastal Mediterranean countries Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
The Influence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress on Changes in Locomotor Parameters in Patients Who Are Prone to Develop COPD Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Prevalence of smoking in Croatia – How to solve the problem? Epidemiology, Patients’ perspective
Effect of physiotherapy on vital capacity before major abdominal surgery in cancer patients: a systematic review Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Awakening cortisol indicators, advanced glycation end products, stress perception, depression and anxiety in parents of children with chronic conditions Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Chronic Critical Patient: A challenge for modern Critical Care Medicine Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Management, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Cigarette Smoke Induces Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Motives for Participation in Physical Activity Among Adults in Croatia: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures
Easy to Perform Physical Performance Tests to Identify COPD Patients with Low Physical Activity in Clinical Practice Epidemiology, Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Daily Vegetables Intake and Response to COPD Rehabilitation. The Role of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and DNA Damage Rehabilitation paths, Rehabilitation structures, Patients’ perspective
Walking Towards Health: A Public Health Initiative for the Increment of Physical Activity Level in the Local Community in Croatia Epidemiology, Organization of national health service, Rehabilitation paths
Title Study Field